Old Nationalist Movement in Post-Colonial Countries: The Challenge of The State Approaches Toward Moro Movement in Philippines and Acehnese Movement in Indonesia
This paper explores the nationalist movements in post-colonial countries, specifically, the challenge of the state approaches toward Moro in Philippines and Acehnese movements in Indonesia. It investigates how the identity of both movements interacts with states’ actors and how the state approaches responses to and creates an ongoing identity for these movements. The result shows that both movements’ identity formed through their complex historical journeys and through the colonial state approaches during the 17th Century. The values prevalent in both communities are mostly Islamic values that are held alongside the ethno-nationalist values. During post-colonial periods, they faced similar state approaches endorsed by the military that later translated into repressive bureaucracies and policies. While Philippine government took advantage of the 9/11 tragedy and chose to fuel the conflicts by demonizing Moro movement and projecting them as equal to the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group, the Indonesian government, refrained from demonizing GAM as a terrorist group when they had a chance to do so. The paper suggests that both governments use a multicultural nation approaches in dealing with both movements, which allow them to accommodate pluralist and multicultural identities on a more equal position.