Regional Differences in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage in Indonesia
Background: COVID-19 cases are still high in Indonesia. As of September 26, 2021, there have been almost 4.21 million cases reported, with over half a million active cases, and almost 141 thousand people lost their lives. Several measures have been conducted, including social restrictions, mask mandates in public places, and vaccination. However, the vaccination rate varies by province and area. This study aims to assess the vaccination coverage in Indonesia by geographical location.
Methods: We abstracted publicly available data from https://vaksin.kemkes.go.id/#/vaccines provided by the Ministry of Health. The numbers of vaccinated individuals and target population for vaccination were abstracted to calculate the first and second-dose vaccination rates. Data were analyzed using STATA to categorize and classify vaccination rates. A vaccination coverage map was generated through STATA. The difference in difference approach was used to ascertain differences in vaccination coverage comparing Java-Bali to other islands in Indonesia.
Results: As of September 17, 2021, over 77 million people in Indonesia have received the first dose of vaccination, and more than 44 million have completed the second dose of vaccination. This corresponds to 37.40% coverage for the first vaccination and 21.29% coverage for the second vaccination. The vaccination rate ranges from 17.34% to 124,2% for the first dose, and 10.52% to 90.5% for the second dose of vaccination. Two provinces (DKI Jakarta and Bali) have more than 90% vaccination coverage for the first dose, with over 60% of the fully vaccinated target population. For the second dose of vaccination, differences by province were also observed. Only 8 provinces have coverage of above 20% for full-dose vaccination, while the remaining 26 provinces were still below 20%. The difference in difference analyses showed the association between islands with the coverage of vaccination in Indonesia, with Java-Bali having a significantly higher and faster increase in vaccination coverage compared to other islands in Indonesia (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: We found differences in vaccination coverage between regions and provinces in Indonesia. This might be due to differences in distribution, acceptance, and priorities due to COVID-19 cases and risk in each area. An increase in distribution and vaccine acceptance across the provinces in Indonesia is needed to ensure equal vaccine coverage in Indonesia.